Root Canal

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Root Canal

Root canal therapy is needed when the nerve of a tooth is affected by decay or infection. In order to save the tooth, the pulp (the tissue inside the tooth) and bacteria is removed and the resulting space is disinfected and filled with a special medicated material called gutta percha, which helps to restore the tooth to its full function. Having a “root canal” done on a tooth is the treatment of choice to save a tooth that otherwise would have to be removed. Many patients believe that removing a tooth that has problems is the best solution. What may not be realized is that extracting (pulling) a tooth will ultimately be more costly to replace, and will cause significant problems for adjacent teeth as they drift towards the empty space. Root canal therapy is a highly predictable and successful option and usually lasts a lifetime, although, on occasion, a tooth will have to be retreated due to a recurrent infection.

Signs and symptoms for possible root canal therapy:

✔ An abscess (or pimple) on the gums
✔ Lingering sensitivity to hot and cold
✔ Severe toothache pain
✔ Sometimes no symptoms are present (dead tooth)
✔ Swelling and/or tenderness

Reasons for
root canal therapy:

✔ Decay has reached the tooth pulp (the living tissue inside the tooth)
✔ Infection or abscess has developed inside the tooth and at the root tip
✔ Injury or trauma to the tooth

What is involved ?

A root canal procedure requires one or more appointments and can be performed by a dentist or endodontist (a root canal specialist).While the tooth is numb, a rubber dam (a sheet of rubber) will be placed around the tooth to keep it dry and free of saliva. An access opening is made on top of the tooth and a series of root canal files are placed into the opening, one at a time, removing the pulp, nerve tissue, and bacteria. If tooth decay is present, it will also be removed with special dental instruments.

Once the tooth is thoroughly cleaned, it will be sealed with either a permanent filling or, if additional appointments are needed, a temporary filling will be placed. At the next appointment, the roots and the inside cavity of the tooth will be filled and sealed with special dental materials. A filling will be placed to cover the opening on top of the tooth. In addition, most teeth that have had root canal treatment should have a crown (cap) placed.
This will protect the tooth and prevent it from breaking, and restore it to its full function. The crown will also keep the tooth sealed up, and prevent reinfection of the root canal. After treatment, your tooth may still be sensitive, but this will subside as the inflammation diminishes and the tooth and surrounding bone has healed. You will be given care instructions after each appointment. Good oral hygiene practices and regular dental visits will aid in the life of your root canal treatment.


Endodontics is a specialized branch of dentistry that deals with the complex structures found inside the teeth. The Greek word “Endodontics” literally means “inside the tooth” and relates to the tooth pulp, tissues, nerves, and vessels. Endodontists receive additional dental training after completing dental school to enable them to perform both simple and complex endodontic procedures, including but not limited to; root canal therapy, root canal retreatments, and apicoectomies. Historically, a tooth with a dead and infected nerve space would be removed immediately, but endodontists are now able to save the natural tooth in most cases. Generally, cleaning and sterilizing the inner tooth structures, and then restoring structure and creating a tight seal with a crown restores health and functionality to damaged teeth.

Signs & symptoms of endodontic problems:

  • Inflammation and tenderness of the gums
  • Teeth that are sensitive to hot and cold foods
  • Tenderness when chewing and biting
  • Tooth discoloration
  • Unexplained pain in the nearby lymph nodes

Reasons for endodontic treatment:

Endodontic treatment (or root canal therapy) is performed to save the natural tooth. In spite of the many advanced restorations available, most dentists agree that there is no substitute for healthy, natural teeth. Below are some of the main causes of inner tooth damage: 

Bacterial infections

Oral bacteria is the most common cause of endodontic problems. Bacteria invade the tooth pulp through tiny fissures in the teeth caused by tooth decay or injury. The resulting inflammation and bacterial infection jeopardize the affected tooth and may cause an abscess to form.

Fractures and chips

When a large part of the surface or crown of the tooth has become completely detached, root canal therapy may be required. The removal of the crown portion leaves the pulp exposed, which can be debilitating painful and problematic.


Injuries to the teeth can be caused by a direct or indirect blow to the mouth area.  Some injuries cause a tooth to become “luxated” or dislodged from its socket. Root canal therapy is often needed after the dentist or endodontist has successfully stabilized the injured tooth.


If a tooth has been knocked clean out of the socket, it is important to rinse it and place it back into the socket as quickly as possible. If this is impossible, place the tooth in special dental solution (available at pharmacies) or in milk. These steps will keep the tooth moist and cells on the tooth alive while emergency dental treatment is sought. The tooth will be affixed to its socket using a special splint, and the dentist or endodontist will then perform root canal therapy to save the tooth.

What does an endodontic procedure involve?

Root canal therapy usually takes between one and two visits to complete. Complete X-rays of the teeth will be taken and examined before the treatment begins. Initially, a local anesthetic will be administered, and a dental dam (protective sheet) will be placed to ensure that the surgical area remains free of saliva during the treatment. An opening will be created in the surface of the tooth, and the pulp will be completely removed using small handheld instruments.

The space will then be shaped, cleaned, and filled with gutta-percha.  Gutta-percha is a biocompatible material that is somewhat similar to rubber. Cement will be applied on top to ensure that the root canals are completely sealed off. Usually, a temporary filling will be placed to restore functionality to the tooth prior to the permanent restoration procedure. During the final visit, a permanent restoration or crown will be placed.

If you have questions or concerns about endodontic procedures, please contact our office.


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