Prophylaxis - Teeth Cleaning

Prophylaxis (Teeth Cleaning)

A dental prophylaxis is a teeth cleaning procedure performed to thoroughly clean the teeth.  Prophylaxis is an important dental treatment for preventing the progression of periodontal disease and gingivitis by removing plaque and hardened plaque, called tartar or calculus.

Periodontal disease and gingivitis occur when bacteria from plaque colonize on the gingival (gum) tissue – either above or below the gum line. These bacteria colonies cause serious inflammation and irritation which in turn produce a chronic inflammatory response in the body. 

As a result, inflammation begins to destroy gum and bone tissue, causing the teeth to shift, become unstable, or completely fall out.  The pockets between the gums and teeth become deeper and house more bacteria which may travel via the bloodstream and infect other parts of the body.

Reasons for prophylaxis/teeth cleaning

Prophylaxis is an excellent procedure to help keep the oral cavity in good health and also prevent the progression of gum disease.

Here are some of the benefits of dental prophylaxis:

  • Tartar removal – Tartar (calculus) and plaque buildup, both above and below the gum line, can cause serious periodontal problems if left untreated.  Even using the best brushing and flossing home care techniques, it can be impossible to remove debris, bacteria, and deposits from gum pockets.  The experienced eye of a dental hygienist using specialized dental equipment is needed in order to spot and treat problems such as tartar and plaque buildup.
  • Aesthetics – It’s hard to feel confident about a smile marred by yellowing, stained teeth.  Prophylaxis can rid the teeth of unsightly stains and return the smile to its former glory.
  • Fresher breath – Periodontal disease is often signified by persistent bad breath (halitosis).  Bad breath is generally caused by a combination of rotting food particles below the gum line, bacterial build-up, and periodontal problems.  The removal of plaque, calculus, and bacteria noticeably improves breath and alleviates irritation.
  • Identification of health issues – Many health problems first present themselves to the dentist.  Since prophylaxis involves a thorough examination of the entire oral cavity, the dentist is able to screen for oral cancer, evaluate the risk of periodontitis (periodontal disease) and often spot signs of medical problems like diabetes and kidney problems.  Recommendations can also be provided for altering the home care regimen.

What does prophylaxis treatment involve?

Prophylaxis is usually  performed in the course of a regular dental visit. In cases of extreme dental phobia, it can be performed under oral sedation, or with the aide of laughing gas. Prophylaxis is generally performed in several stages:

  1. Supragingival cleaning – The dental hygienist will thoroughly clean the area above the gum line with scaling tools to rid them of plaque and calculus.
  2. Subgingival cleaning – This is the most important step for patients with a periodontal disease because the dentist is able to remove calculus from the gum pockets and beneath the gum line.
  3. Root planing – Root Planing is the smoothing of the tooth root by the dentist to eliminate any remaining bacteria.  These bacteria are extremely dangerous to periodontitis sufferers, so eliminating them is one of the top priorities of treatment.
  4. Medication – Following scaling and root planing, an antibiotic or antimicrobial rinse is often placed in the gum pockets.  These irrigants promote fast and healthy healing in the pockets and help ease discomfort.
  5. X-ray and examination – Routine X-rays can be extremely revealing when it comes to periodontal disease.  X-rays show the extent of bone and gum recession and also aid the dentist in identifying areas which may need future attention.

Prophylactic (preventative) teeth cleaning is recommended twice annually as a preventative measure but should be performed every 3-4 months on patients with periodontitis (periodontal disease).  Though gum disease cannot be reversed, prophylaxis is one of the tools the dentist can use to effectively stop its destructive progress.

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